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USIIexamI

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The main purpose of the Freedmen's Bureau was to
a.
oversee relations between former masters and slaves.
b.
implement the process of land redistribution.
c.
deny access to legal redress for white southerners.
d.
punish former slave holders.
 

 2. 

Which of the following is not part of the Fourteenth Amendment?
a.
It gave all citizens equal protection of the law.
b.
It funded the Confederate war debt.
c.
It created a constitutional definition of citizenship.
d.
It gave Congress broad powers to enforce the amendment.
 

 3. 

The Tenure of Office Act
a.
angered congressmen by limiting their terms to two years.
b.
stated that a president could only hold office while in good standing.
c.
required Senate approval before the president could remove a cabinet member.
d.
was designed to implement the spoils system.
 

 4. 

The impeachment of Andrew Johnson was
a.
because of crimes and misdemeanors committed while he was president.
b.
the first time a president was forced to resign.
c.
in retaliation for his opposition to congressional reconstruction.
d.
because of his failure to appoint a vice president.
 

 5. 

Which of the following is not true regarding the Fifteenth Amendment?
a.
It prohibited states from denying the right to vote on grounds of race or color.
b.
It was very popular throughout the North.
c.
It encountered much resistance in the white South.
d.
It was part of the congressional reconstruction plan.
 

 6. 

Ulysses S. Grant depended on this group for his presidential victory in 1868.
a.
northern Democrats
b.
southern Democrats
c.
African Americans
d.
National Union Party members
 

 7. 

One of the major political scandals of the Grant presidency involved
a.
the Compromise of 1877.
b.
Credit Mobilier.
c.
the Central Pacific Railroad.
d.
the Specie Resumption Act.
 

 8. 

The 1871 Treaty of Washington
a.
resolved border disputes between the United States and Canada.
b.
was a diplomatic solution to the unsuccessful attempt to annex Santo Domingo.
c.
settled U.S. claims against Britain for destruction of American shipping.
d.
resolved differences between the Confederacy and the Union.
 

 9. 

The main purpose of the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction was to
a.
destroy the Republican Party in the South.
b.
deny freedmen equal protection under the law.
c.
return black Americans to slavery.
d.
dismantle the Democratic Party.
 

 10. 

__________ was the presidential candidate nominated by both the Liberal Republicans and the Democratic Party in the election of 1872.
a.
Horatio Seymour
b.
Samuel B. Tilden
c.
Ulysses S. Grant
d.
Horace Greeley
 

 11. 

By the mid-1870s, northern Americans had grown
a.
increasingly supportive of the government's efforts to restructure the South.
b.
stronger in the belief that black Americans needed further protection from racist southern governments.
c.
increasingly weary of the turmoil of southern politics.
d.
increasingly weary of the federal government's failure to restructure the South.
 

 12. 

The strategy known as the "Mississippi Plan" aimed to do all of the following except
a.
intimidate black voters.
b.
force all southern whites to join the Democratic Party.
c.
end Republican rule in the South.
d.
return confiscated land to former owners.
 

 13. 

Which of the following was not a part of the Compromise of 1877?
a.
removal of federal troops from southern states
b.
appointment of a southern vice president
c.
federal aid for a southern railroad
d.
federal appropriations to rebuild war-destroyed levees
 

 14. 

The idea of redistributing plantation land to freedmen was tried first by
a.
Jefferson Davis.
b.
Benjamin Wade.
c.
William T. Sherman.
d.
Andrew Johnson.
 

 15. 

Scalawags were
a.
northerners who attempted to finance economic enterprises in the postwar South.
b.
southern blacks attempting to exert their newly acquired political power.
c.
white, southern-born Republicans.
d.
white southerners who opposed reconstruction policies.
 

 16. 

Radical Republicans objected to Lincoln's initial Reconstruction plan because it
a.
offered a presidential pardon to former Confederate political and military leaders.
b.
did not require the establishment of educational opportunities for freed people.
c.
restored the political rights of white men who had fought against the Union.
d.
was too difficult to enforce.
 

 17. 

Northern Republicans rejected the southern state governments set up under the Johnson Plan because they
a.
elected ex-Confederate leaders to political office.
b.
jeopardized Republican control of Congress.
c.
did not offer full citizenship rights to freedmen.
d.
all of the above
 

 18. 

Which of the following is characteristic of the post-Civil War southern labor system?
a.
Black workers preferred working in gangs as they had done under slavery.
b.
The new system of sharecropping evolved.
c.
Foreign immigrants were brought in to replace slave laborers.
d.
Most ex-slaves purchased land and often employed their former masters.
 

 19. 

During the Reconstruction period
a.
thousands of ex-Confederate leaders were tried, imprisoned, and executed for war crimes.
b.
each adult freedman was given "forty acres and a mule."
c.
three-fourths of the ex-slaves moved north to take advantage of higher wages there.
d.
the illiteracy rate among southern blacks was reduced significantly.
 

 20. 

Which of the following is not true of black political activity during Reconstruction?
a.
Most black voters were illiterate ex-slaves.
b.
More than 50 percent of high state and federal offices were held by blacks.
c.
Prominent black leaders were educated and most had been free prior to the Civil War.
d.
A majority of black voters were members of the Republican Party.
 

 21. 

In the 1870s and 1880s the U.S. Supreme Court
a.
strengthened the authority of federal officials in prosecuting individuals who violated the civil rights of blacks.
b.
declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional.
c.
banned racial discrimination in public transportation and accommodations.
d.
ordered the desegregation of public schools in the South.
 

 22. 

Members of Abraham Lincoln's own party opposed his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction because
a.
it promised too much financial compensation to former Confederates.
b.
it didn't go far enough to force the Confederacy to pay its debts.
c.
it granted too much land to freedpeople
d.
it left the door open to restrictive Southern measures to control former slaves.
 

 23. 

The four southern states remaining under Republican control in 1875 were South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and
a.
Georgia.
b.
Louisiana.
c.
South Carolina.
d.
Virginia.
 

 24. 

The last battle between the U.S. Army and American Indians, often recognized symbolically as the death of Plains Indian culture, was fought at
a.
Little Big Horn.
b.
Sand Creek.
c.
Wounded Knee.
d.
Big Creek.
 

 25. 

The biggest boost to the cattle industry in the late nineteenth century was the
a.
breeding of longhorn cattle.
b.
movement of the railroad westward.
c.
arrival of the cowboy.
d.
decline of open-range grazing.
 

 26. 

"Jim Crow" laws
a.
disenfranchised black Americans.
b.
extended the naturalization period for foreigners.
c.
prevented women from voting.
d.
mandated racial segregation in public facilities.
 

 27. 

The Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson stated that
a.
the right of blacks to vote was not constitutionally protected.
b.
black Americans could be prevented from running for office.
c.
Jim Crow laws were illegal.
d.
black and white Americans could be segregated by race, but must be supplied with equal facilities.
 

 28. 

In the fight for equal rights, black leader Booker T. Washington adopted a strategy that emphasized
a.
segregation.
b.
political equality and freedoms.
c.
self-help and education.
d.
government assistance to blacks.
 

 29. 

The five "civilized tribes"
a.
sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War.
b.
were nomadic hunters who followed the buffalo across the plains.
c.
were the first organized group to openly oppose slavery in the United States.
d.
received millions of additional acres of land from the federal government in the 1860s.
 

 30. 

The "Ghost Dance" was
a.
a religious movement that promised the destruction of the white man and the return of Indian land.
b.
a Halloween celebration popular among Czech and German immigrants on the plains.
c.
the only Indian cultural activity permitted by the Interior Department on the reservations in the 1890s.
d.
introduced by Christian missionaries as a means of undermining pagan rituals.
 

 31. 

By 1890, the Sioux and other reservation Indians
a.
were rapidly adapting to a capitalist, agrarian lifestyle.
b.
had achieved full U.S. citizenship and equal rights.
c.
were reduced to lives of poverty, depression, and alcoholism.
d.
were profiting from the discovery of oil on their ancestral lands.
 

 32. 

The Dawes Severalty Act
a.
protected tribal ownership of land and separate nation status.
b.
offered each Indian head of family 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land.
c.
resulted in the addition of millions of acres to tribal holdings.
d.
only affected the five "civilized tribes."
 

 33. 

In the post-Civil War period, the Spanish speaking peoples of the Southwest and California
a.
preserved many of their distinctive traditions.
b.
were increasingly confined to city barrios.
c.
lost much of their political influence.
d.
all of the above
 

 34. 

The economy of the "New South" was colonial in that
a.
it had not changed since the colonial period of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
b.
it depended on raw materials imported from Caribbean colonies.
c.
many major industries were financed and controlled by northern businessmen.
d.
southern leaders invested more capital in agriculture than in manufacturing.
 

 35. 

Which of the following is not true of race relations during the New South period?
a.
Most black southerners were denied the right to vote.
b.
Ninety percent of the convicts in southern prisons were black.
c.
Lynching and racial violence declined significantly.
d.
Reform groups agitated for elimination of the convict leasing system.
 

 36. 

Which of the following is true of national politics in the Gilded Age?
a.
All of the presidents had served in the Union Army during the Civil War.
b.
The Democrats and Republicans were so evenly balanced that most elections were determined by the electoral vote of New York, Ohio, and Indiana.
c.
For the first time in U.S. history a third party candidate won the presidency.
d.
Democratic candidates "waved the bloody shirt" to keep alive the memory of the Civil War.
 

 37. 

Charles Guiteau is noted as the
a.
paranoid schizophrenic who assassinated James A. Garfield.
b.
Mugwump leader who ran as the vice presidential candidate in 1892.
c.
congressman who led the civil-service reform movement.
d.
major northern Democratic leader of the 1880s.
 

 38. 

According to Frederick Jackson Turner, American character and culture were primarily influenced by
a.
the Spanish and the French traditions.
b.
the development of civilized cities and towns.
c.
the spread of the plantation system.
d.
the existence of the frontier and the westward movement.
 

 39. 

Which of the following best describes the Mugwumps, Stalwarts, and Half-Breeds?
a.
They were conflicting groups within the Democratic Party.
b.
Both the Mugwumps and Half-Breeds supported reforms while the Stalwarts opposed reform.
c.
Only the Stalwarts advocated civil-service reform.
d.
All three groups favored extension of the spoils system.
 

 40. 

The U.S. Army encouraged the slaughter of millions of buffalo
a.
because the buffalo limited the grazing range for cattle.
b.
in order to feed hungry industrial workers in the North.
c.
in order to weaken the Plains Indians by depriving them of their source of food, clothing, and shelter.
d.
because the great herds interfered with the building of the transcontinental railroad.
 

 41. 

President Grant's "Peace Policy" toward the Indians
a.
called for the extermination of the wild tribes.
b.
continued the tradition of dealing with Indian tribes as "separate nations."
c.
encouraged Indians to accept civilization, Christianity, and citizenship.
d.
offered the peaceful relocation of willing Indians to remote areas in Canada and Alaska.
 

 42. 

The __________ Act helped to establish competitive exams for selected civil-service jobs.
a.
Sherman
b.
Interstate Commerce
c.
Pendleton
d.
Dawes Severalty
 

 43. 

Most of the New South's iron and steel industry was concentrated in
a.
central Georgia.
b.
northern Alabama.
c.
southern Mississippi.
d.
eastern Tennessee.
 

 44. 

The Interstate Commerce Act
a.
outlawed unfair pricing activities on the part of railroads.
b.
outlawed the restraint of trade between states.
c.
attempted to control business trusts.
d.
none of the above
 

 45. 

Which union was hurt irrevocably by the Haymarket Square protest?
a.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
b.
Knights of Labor
c.
Industrial Workers of the World
d.
American Federation of Labor
 

 46. 

The head of the American Railway Union involved in the Pullman strike was
a.
William Bryan.
b.
Terence Powderly.
c.
Eugene Debs.
d.
James Blaine.
 

 47. 

Late-nineteenth-century farmers resented all of the following except
a.
banks.
b.
the gold standard.
c.
agricultural cooperatives.
d.
railroads.
 

 48. 

The issue that caused the Populist Party to be absorbed by the Democratic Party was
a.
income tax.
b.
unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1.
c.
government control of railroads.
d.
direct election of senators.
 

 49. 

The winner of the 1896 presidential election was
a.
William McKinley.
b.
William Jennings Bryan.
c.
Theodore Roosevelt.
d.
Mark Hanna.
 

 50. 

"Granger Laws"
a.
helped destroy the Patrons of Husbandry.
b.
established state railroad commissions to determine fair transportation rates and warehouse charges.
c.
never actually went into effect until the twentieth century.
d.
regulated farm cooperatives and land banks.
 

 51. 

In the landmark decision of Munn v. Illinois (1877), the Supreme Court
a.
declared state railroad regulations unconstitutional.
b.
upheld the right of states to regulate public businesses including railroads.
c.
established federal guidelines for agricultural production.
d.
outlawed segregation in companies engaged in interstate commerce.
 

 52. 

Which of the following was not a nineteenth-century innovation?
a.
radio
b.
motion pictures
c.
telephone
d.
electric lights
 

 53. 

The "Robber Barons" were
a.
gangsters who "organized" crime in the United States.
b.
European nobles who tried to transplant the Old-World class system to North America.
c.
American businessmen who used cut-throat tactics to create their financial empires.
d.
Western outlaws who specialized in robbing trains.
 

 54. 

During the nineteenth century, the Sherman Antitrust Act
a.
successfully dissolved the ten largest corporations in the United States.
b.
was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
c.
was never used at all.
d.
was used by big business to break up unions and strikes.
 

 55. 

Andrew Carnegie created a monopoly in the industry.
a.
oil
b.
steel
c.
railroad
d.
textile
 

 56. 

In U.S. v. E. C. Knight Company, the Supreme Court ruled that
a.
the sugar refining monopoly was illegal.
b.
the federal government had no authority over the economy.
c.
the Interstate Commerce Act was unconstitutional.
d.
the Sherman Antitrust Act regulated commerce but not manufacturing.
 

 57. 

The first labor union formed after the Civil War was the
a.
Cigar Makers Union.
b.
National Labor Union.
c.
Knights of Labor.
d.
United Mine Workers Union.
 

 58. 

In response to labor activism,
a.
Congress established Labor Day as an official holiday to honor workers.
b.
state legislatures restricted the workers' constitutional right to assemble.
c.
both the Democratic and the Republican Parties added minimum wage/maximum hour laws to their party platforms.
d.
business leaders agreed to negotiate with unions to establish fair wages.
 

 59. 

Edward Bellamy's philosophy of Nationalism
a.
was a Marxian socialist theory that called for class conflict.
b.
led to the creation of clubs that supported public ownership of industry and utility companies.
c.
was rejected by procapitalist Christians.
d.
was the most powerful economic theory of the Gilded Age.
 

 60. 

The Social Gospel movement
a.
worked to improve the physical and spiritual lives of the poor.
b.
advocated work camps for the unemployed.
c.
emphasized that immorality caused poverty.
d.
called for separation of church and state in regard to social issues.
 

 61. 

Jacob Coxey
a.
founded the American Socialist Labor Party.
b.
was the Populist Party vice presidential candidate in 1892.
c.
petitioned Congress to relieve unemployment by financing public works projects.
d.
established a home mission society to bring Christianity to Africa and Asia.
 

 62. 

The Greenback and "free silver" movements supported
a.
a sound money policy to strengthen the dollar on the international market.
b.
the complete reorganization of the U.S. banking system.
c.
a free enterprise approach to establishing interest rates.
d.
increasing the amount of currency in circulation.
 

 63. 

The Farmers' Alliance advocated
a.
importation of Asians to provide cheap farm labor.
b.
cooperatives to eliminate middlemen and to maximize farmers' profits.
c.
federal production and price controls.
d.
limitations on the number of women and children employed as farm workers.
 

 64. 

The Pullman strike (1894) was significant because
a.
President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to break the strike.
b.
the U.S. attorney general used a federal injunction against the railroads.
c.
the Pullman Company compromised with the unions in order to prevent violence.
d.
all of the above
 

 65. 

William Jennings Bryan is noted for
a.
expressing the views of the farmers and laborers in his "cross of gold" speech.
b.
serving as legal counsel for the American Railway Union in the Pullman strike.
c.
switching from the Democratic to the Republican Party after the election of 1890.
d.
serving beer and wine at campaign meetings.
 

 66. 

Which of the following events occurred first?
a.
U.S. v. E. C. Night Company decision
b.
Haymarket Square incident
c.
Progress and Poverty published
d.
Homestead strike
 

 67. 

The Homestead strike involved the
a.
United Mine Workers.
b.
American Railway Association.
c.
Knights of Labor.
d.
Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers.
 

 68. 

Which of the following robber barons was not involved in the railroad business?
a.
William Vanderbilt
b.
Andrew Carnegie
c.
Jay Gould
d.
Jim Fisk
 



 
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